There was a small fraction of adults, mostly at higher rearing temperatures, that emerged one or two days after eclosion (Fig. The proximate and ultimate causes of these changes remain to be discovered, and yet the data obtained do shed some light on the developmental processes in this dangerous pest of stored legumes and widespread laboratory animal as well as lay the groundwork for comparative studies of the origin and evolution of seed beetle life cycles. J Stored Prod Res. Crustaceana Suppl. Larval development and pupation are completed entirely within a single seed. Early development until dorsal closure is studied by fixation and fluorescent staining of groups of embryos at different times from egg-laying. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. As sclerotization is a very complex process, many details of which are poorly understood, it may be presumed that different biochemical reactions during this process have somewhat discordant temperature responses and/or are strongly sensitive to other extrinsic or intrinsic factors. The evolutionary pathways that have led to the wide diversity of development times and that make an organism develop precisely at the rate its ancestors did, with due correction for temperature and other environmental variables, remain largely unknown. Pupation and adult eclosion were observed directly through an incision in the seed coat. Semidestructive sampling of postembryonic stages may have affected development time but this seems unlikely, at least for larvae and pupae, given the 100% survival rates and the similarity of estimated total development times to previous measurements from the literature (Additional file 5). The five experimental temperature regimens used in this study were chosen after reviewing the published evidence (Additional file 5) and were anticipated to fit within the linear region of the thermal reaction norm. 2014;24(11):1308–20. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal potential of the essential oils of Illicium verum Hook. 1966;56:444–80. Hogyan kell mondani callosobruchus maculatus Angol? This communication addresses temperature-dependent immature development in C. maculatus, a dangerous cosmopolitan pest of stored legumes and one of the most widely used laboratory animals. 4c), which may have been triggered by the presence of an artificial incision in the seed coat. While this level of detail may be sufficient for purely practical purposes, describing the thermal phenotype in such broad-brush terms arguably does not do justice to the diverse and intricate processes responsible for the transformation of an inseminated oocyte into a mature holometabolous insect. Examples of integration of thermal developmental ecology with embryology, or vice versa, also do exist, yet these rare studies mostly deal with animals whose embryos, or at least certain embryonic stages, are more or less easily observable in vivo [10, 34, 46, 55, 56, 61]. Cookies policy. The study was supported by a grant from Russian Science Foundation (project no. Late embryonic and early larval development was studied with the use of destructive sampling and light microscopy. Thus, the entire development is divided into 12 stages, for each of which a thermal reaction norm is plotted for the first time, visualizing the changes in the temperature-sensitivity of development from oviposition to adult emergence. 1995;85(2):285–97. Arthropod Struct Dev. Umoetok Akpassam SB, Iloba BN, Udo IA. If the incision happened to occur before the prepupal stage and the larva was still active enough to mend the injure in the seed coat with its oral secretion, the orifice thus closed had to be reopened with a scalpel after a day or two. 1947;58(3):289–314. Near the vegetal pole of the embryo, the chorion is extended into a short respiratory tube with conspicuous protuberances on its inner surface (best visible in Fig. One possible explanation for the differences in embryonic developmental rates may be that the laboratory culture used in this study was not old itself and was regularly ‘refreshed’ by adding new beetles, whereas the previous studies may have used inbred material. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data. http://opendata.syngenta.agroknow.com/api/action/datastore/search.json?resource_id=bb91618a-15d0-4547-89d9-66a50c01f56c&limit=5, Callosobruchus maculatus, Diabrotica barberi, Diabrotica virgifer and Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi, Leptinotarsa decemlineata and Diabrotica balteata, Leptinotarsa decemlineata and Diabrotica balteata - RDF Version, Callosobruchus maculatus, Diabrotica barberi, Diabrotica virgifer and Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi - RDF Version, Target Pest CPB and Closely Related Species, Callosobruchus_maculatus_Diabrotica_various_v1.2.csv. Thus, embryo samples fixed a few hours apart after egg laying could have actually been obtained from different generations of beetles and separated by weeks or months (Additional file 1), partially compensating for the lack of replication. 1960;50(4):671–80. Hum Reprod. The ‘temperature-size rule’ is not universal among ectotherms but small-sized, multivoltine terrestrial arthropods are more likely to conform to it , and this is exactly the case with C. maculatus. Environ Entomol. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. Each harvested group of 15 cowpeas with freshly laid eggs cemented to them was immediately transferred to a 4 cm3 plastic cup and assigned to one of the five constant temperature regimens: 20, 23, 26, 29 or 32 °C, all in constant darkness and at 75% relative humidity. Választhat egy másik név, A nap szava - a beérkezett üzenetek mappában minden nap, © 2020 HowToPronounce. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12898-020-00318-2.
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